While the voluntary carbon market has gained popularity in recent years as a way to address climate change, it has also had to contend with fundamental problem areas. Carbon markets have faced criticism for a number of issues, including their lack of transparency, accessibility, equitability, and quality. And despite broad corporate interest, they remain underused and fragmented.6 These historic issues include:

  • Lack of Standardised Methodologies: In the early stages of the voluntary carbon market, there was a lack of standardised methodologies for measuring and verifying carbon reductions. This made it difficult to compare and ensure the integrity of carbon offset projects. Different projects used varying methodologies, leading to concerns about the accuracy and credibility of offset claims.

  • Additionality: Additionality refers to the concept that a carbon offset project should result in emissions reductions that would not have occurred without the financial support from the sale of offsets. However, determining additionality has been a challenge, and there have been instances where carbon credits were sold for projects that would have happened anyway, making the offset claims questionable.

  • Double Counting: This occurs when a carbon offset is claimed by multiple parties, leading to the overestimation of emissions reductions. The issue arises due to a lack of transparency, inadequate tracking systems, or incompatible accounting methodologies. Double counting undermines the integrity of the voluntary carbon market and poses challenges to accurately measuring emissions reductions.

  • Lack of oversight and transparency: The voluntary carbon market has operated with limited oversight and regulation, which has led to concerns about the credibility and transparency of offset projects. Without standardised reporting and auditing practices, it becomes challenging to ensure that projects are delivering the promised emissions reductions.

  • Quality and effectiveness of projects: Some projects have faced criticism for not delivering the expected emissions reductions or for having unintended negative impacts, such as displacing local communities or causing environmental harm. Ensuring the ecological integrity of projects has been a significant challenge in the voluntary carbon market.

  • Price and market fluctuations: The voluntary carbon market has experienced significant price fluctuations over time. Prices for carbon credits can vary widely, and the lack of a centralised market makes it difficult to establish consistent pricing mechanisms. This volatility can undermine the stability and effectiveness of the market.

  • Greenwashing and credibility concerns: Greenwashing, which refers to the misleading use of environmental claims, has been a concern in the voluntary carbon market. Some companies have used carbon offsets as a way to improve their public image without making substantial efforts to reduce their own emissions. This has raised credibility concerns and undermined the effectiveness of the market as a tool for addressing climate change.

It's important to note that efforts are being made to address these historical issues. However, ongoing vigilance and improvement are necessary to ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the VCM.

6. Recommendations for the Digital Voluntary and Regulated Carbon Markets weforum.org